OPEC at a crossroads as oil prices fall
These are the moments for which OPEC exists: A sharp drop in global oil prices has reduced the amount of money OPEC countries take in by nearly US$1 billion a day.
The 12-member group's purpose is to coordinate how much oil is produced in order to keep prices high and stable and maximise member countries' revenue while making sure global demand for oil stays strong.
A steep, coordinated cut in output could stop and possibly reverse what has been a 30 per cent decline in prices over five months.
But there was widespread doubt that OPEC will be able to do much of anything ahead of Thursday's meeting in Vienna. They voted, as expected, to maintain current production levels.
Ahead of the meeting, analysts had said that either the members won't agree to a cut or the cut would be too small to influence oil prices.
That could mean further declines in the price of oil, along with fuels such as gasolene, diesel and jet fuel.
"The idea that this is a cartel that places meaningful restrictions on its members' behaviour is fiction," says Jeff Colgan, a political science professor at Brown University's Watson Institute who studies OPEC. "OPEC countries do exactly what we would expect them to do if there were no such thing as OPEC."
OPEC is at a crossroads. The group, which produces 30 million barrels of oil per day, one-third of global liquid fuel demand, is facing the most pronounced decline in oil prices since the financial crisis hit in 2008. And the world now is drastically different.
Oil production outside of OPEC is surging for the first time in a generation, boosting global oil supplies. US production has surged 70 per cent since 2008, adding 3.5 million barrels of oil per day. The increase itself is more than any OPEC member produces other than Saudi Arabia.
At the same time, OPEC members around the world - those in the Middle East and North Africa, along with countries such as Venezuela and Nigeria - are undergoing wrenching political upheaval that is putting extraordinary pressure on government budgets. OPEC countries need oil money more than ever, making the steep cuts in production that would be necessary to push up prices all but impossible.
"They have quite a task in front of them," says Bhushan Bahree, senior director for OPEC and Middle East research at the analysis firm IHS. "They have to decide how much room to make, if any, for North American supply growth."
On Track for Further Decline
Without a cut in output, global supply is on track to exceed demand by 1.2 million barrels per day next year. If that comes to pass, oil prices would almost certainly decline further. Even a modest announced cut of 500,000 barrels per day, or adherence to current OPEC quotas might not be enough to stop the slide in prices.
Already, the global price of oil has fallen 30 per cent since late June, to US$80 a barrel, from US$115. This has been a boon for consumers, airlines and shippers.
Saudi Arabia, by far OPEC's biggest producer, has large reserve funds that allow it to withstand long periods of lower prices. And it may have geopolitical reasons to keep prices subdued, at least right now.
For example, low oil prices may help pressure Iran to reach an agreement on its nuclear programme. Western countries have imposed economic sanctions on Iran, leading to a decrease in the country's oil exports. Low oil prices are further shrinking Iran's oil revenue. They are also squeezing the finances of Russia, which has supported Iran's nuclear efforts.
"The geopolitical pressure between Saudi Arabia and Russia is so great that it probably motivates Saudi Arabia to let the price fall," says Amy Myers Jaffe, executive director for energy and sustainability at the University of California, Davis.
Lower oil prices also might slow the growth of oil production in parts of the US, Canada and elsewhere because it will no longer be so profitable, helping sideline some OPEC competition.
No matter the motivations for or against the cut, the price of oil isn't nearly low enough to spur OPEC action, says long-time global oil expert Larry Goldstein, of the Energy Policy Research Foundation. A 30 per cent drop is big, but in the past oil has had to fall far further for OPEC to act. In 2008, oil fell from US$147 to US$34.
"(OPEC) is a crisis management entity," he says. "As a cartel, OPEC hasn't been functional for several decades."
Judith Dwarkin, chief oil economist at ITG Investment Research, says that the retreat in oil prices is a natural result of years of high oil prices that inspired drillers around the world to find more oil. That could make it very difficult to reverse without some unexpected supply disruption in the volatile Middle East.
"It could be that the price rout has some more room to run," she said.