Michael Rogers, a former Team Sky rider and three-time world trial champion, has failed a drugs test.
The 33-year-old Australian tested positive for clenbuterol at the Japan Cup in October.
The International Cycling Union says Rogers is provisionally suspended while his national federation investigates the case.
Team Sky's Jonathan Tiernan-Locke is also being investigated after an anti-doping violation.
Rogers' team released a statement which stated that the Australian feared the positive result was due to a contaminated food source.
Clenbuterol, which helps build muscle and burn fat, is the substance two-time Tour de France winner Alberto Contador tested positive for at the 2010 Tour.
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